CALL TODAY With fast turnaround time, easy, convenient web-based interface and clear and understandable reporting we provide you the opportunity of better patient care. Boyett Treatment Center is a licensed professional outpatient facility providing support to individuals who are stabilizing from the effects of chemical dependency.

5401 Vogel Road - Suite 740 Evansville, IN (47715)


5401 Vogel Road - Suite 740 Evansville, IN 47715



INTERVIEW 1 Nate Boyett

individuals can become addicted even after only taking opioid pain meds for a few days. One study found that one in five people given a 10-day supply of opioid painkillers became long-term users. More M.D. Education Needed Don Teater, M.D., medical adviser of the non-profit National Safety Council, says doctors need more education to understand the draw- backs of prescribing opioids. “Doctors get a lot of training in the physical aspects of health, but not the mental aspects,” says Teater, a family physician in North Carolina whose practice focuses on treatment of pain and the treatment of opioid use disorder. “We don’t get training in addiction. Often, a doctor will start a patient on opioid pain med- ication and continue it for awhile. Then if the doctor feels the patient is asking for too much medication, the doctor will cut them off, and abandon them. There needs to be a greater understanding of the emotional component to pain. We also need to have a better under- standing of the disease of addiction.” According to a white paper from the Council, there is little evidence that opioids are helpful when used for chronic pain.

four groups – and by similar levels: 4.3 points in the ibuprofen/acetaminophen group, 4.4 points in the oxycodone/acetaminophen group, 3.5 in the hydrocodone/acetaminophen group and 3.9 in the codeine/acetaminophen group. The researchers said the major limitation of the study is that it had the patients assess their pain only while they were in the emergency department. The study did not evaluate how the ibuprofen/acetaminophen combination would work in comparison to opioids once the patients went home. Also, the participants had a specific type of acute pain – from sprained or broken arms and legs. “Preventing new patients from becoming addicted to opioids may have a greater effect on the opioid epidemic than providing sus- tained treatment to patients already addicted to opioids, in whom it may take many years to achieve recovery,” Demetrio Kyriacou, M.D., a senior editor at JAMA and a professor of emer- gency medicine at Northwestern University, wrote in an accompanying editorial. Yet, as Kyriacou also acknowledges, “stemming the opioid addiction crisis will … require reex- amination of the long-standing assumptions that opioids are superior to

Trial evaluated effectiveness for common injuries

Four Groups of Patients The patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups. One group received a pill for their acute pain that contained a combination of ibu- profen and acetaminophen, the ingredients in Advil and Tylenol. The other groups were given a pill for their pain that contained a prescription opioid as well as acetaminophen, either oxyco- done and acetaminophen (Percocet), hydroco- done and acetaminophen (Vicodin), or codeine and acetaminophen (Tylenol No. 3). All the patients were asked to rate their pain immediately before taking the pain medication and again both one and two hours afterward (before they left the emergency department). The assessments were done using an 11-point scale (0 = no pain; 10 = worst possible pain). The study found that the intensity of pain was similar among all four groups before they took the medication, with a mean score of 8.7 on the scale. The pain then declined over time in all

As the over prescribing of opioid pain medications has become a major public health concern, health care providers have been paying more attention to over-the count- er-drugs that could be used instead, without the risk of addiction. A recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) has confirmed that OTC meds ibuprofen and acet- aminophen are just as effective as prescription opioids at reducing acute pain caused by com- mon injuries.It is one of the few “real world” studies that has made the comparison. A team of researchers led by Andrew Chang, M.D. of Albany Medical College, studied 411 patients (aged 21 to 64) who had sought med- ical care at two urban emergency departments after having sprained, strained or broken an arm or leg. (About 20 percent of the patients had fractures.)

non-opioids in most clinical situations requiring man- agement of moderate to severe pain.” Studies have shown that nearly one-third of adult patients seeking care at U.S. hospital emergency departments are given prescriptions for opioid painkillers, even if their visit was not pain-relat- ed. That is a dangerous practice, since some

“In fact, some evidence shows they may be detri- mental and increase risk of addiction and premature death,” the paper says.

There is little evidence that opioids are helpful when used for chronic pain.

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INTERVIEW 2 Marcus Howard



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FARGO, N.D. (Valley News Live) - We have uncovered new details surrounding a drug overdose in West Fargo that killed a 19-year-old and sent another teen to the hospital. In April, police found two men unconscious at an apartment building after being exposed to a large amount of fentanyl. One was taken to the hospital and the other, Alex Hirn was found dead. New court documents obtained by Valley News Live show the drugs were delivered by mail and bought through the dark web. the drugs were delivered by mail and bought through the dark web DARK WEB Dangerous drugs purchased on the internet

Anonymous online shipping services make it even harder for law enforcement to catch people. When the package is delivered typically the mail carrier has no idea what is inside. Huston says parents should not be afraid of the technology, but they should be aware about it. “It can’t be a law enforcement issue anymore, that’s what I think, I think it’s got to be a public health issue.” He says the problem is going to get worse, and the addiction problem in the community needs to be addressed. For concerned parents, Lt. Ruskizka recommends checking their children’s online history. He also says to keep in mind that the dark web is accessed through a separate browser that you should watch out for. of the technology, but they should be aware about it Huston says parents should not be afraid

Authorities say people in the Fargo-Moorhead community are buying illegal drugs online and it has led to multiple overdoses. Fargo Police Lt. Shannon Ruskizka says “A lot of these drugs, heroin, fentanyl, carfentanil, those types of drugs have been ordered over the dark web to our community and it’s people who live in our community who have ordered them.” He says they started noticing the dark web after they saw more and more people overdosing and dying. “Drug dealing has been going on for years, maybe even decades, we just were not that aware of it.” 23-year-old Steven Huston set up a test account on a dark web market place to show us what is for sale. He says, “It took me about four minutes to get to this point, four minutes.” He doesn’t buy drugs himself, but says anyone with internet access can. “This stuff is just so cheap that it’s everywhere.”

Huston says you can ship it right to your house and typically get it within two days. “They are selling 10 grams of fentanyl for $30.00 per gram and that’s a lot of fentanyl to be going through the mail.” You can also read reviews from people who have bought the drugs from the same seller. Ruskizka says it is hard to catch the people selling these drugs online. “It’s not attached to you in any other way than your online identity, which doesn’t even have to be close to your real identity. You can make an online identity that’s entirely different than who you are.” Huston says, “The buyer is not really concerned about giving their address to them or anything, they are not going to call the police on you, and the seller is doesn’t have to put their address on it.”


Recent research indicates that magnetic stimulation to the brain may work to curb addictive tendencies in humans, according to research covered in a recent article. Researchers tested transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in humans in an attempt to curb cocaine addiction. The treatment used magnets on cocaine addicts for ve consecutive days, followed by once-a-week treatments for three weeks. The number of participants was only 29, but the ndings were still encouraging: Of the 13 people who received an all-TMS protocol, 10 exhibited what researchers determined to be substantial improvement in controlling cocaine cravings. “I have met with these patients, I have seen them, I have seen their families,” says Antonello Bonci, a neuropsychopharmacologist and National Institute on Drugs researcher who co-authored the study, to “They are alive, they are well . . . something has clearly happened to these people.” Researchers Think Magnets Can Help With Drug Addiction Impulses

Magnetic Stimulation

The Mayo Clinic denes TMS as “a noninvasive procedure that uses magnetic elds to stimulate nerve cells in the brain to improve symptoms of depression. TMS is typically used when other depression treatment hasn’t been effective.” It works through an electromagnetic coil that is placed directly on a person’s head, near the forehead. The electromagnetic simulation painlessly delivers a magnetic pulse that stimulates nerves in the PFC—the part of the brain also involved with mood control and depression, as well as addiction. “We know that addictive drugs change many, many brain regions, as many as 90 or more, and these regions are organized into overlapping circuits. We have no idea how, given this enormous complexity, just shutting down or tuning up one single region can produce such profound effects,” Bonci says, adding that drug addicts “are often unable to switch from a counterproductive behavior to another, more benecial, one. They get stuck in repetitive, compulsive behaviors, such as using drugs.” Bonci tells that he is currently in the process of launching a larger, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of cocaine addicts. “This is a pilot study—we have a lot of work to do,” says Bonci. “I think that we will know, in just a few years, if this will become an accepted treatment.”

Many Uses For TMS

Researchers are looking into the potential of TMS as an effective treatment for a number of ailments. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) researchers have studied how TMS can be used for obsessive-compulsive disorder, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy. The Journal of Headache and Pain published work studying the effects of TMS researchers studying TMS treatment for alcohol craving suppression and addictive behaviors. NCBI also published a study on TMS and binge eating disorder and comorbid depression, and The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry published a story on the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS stimulation for decreasing cigarette smoking. Research on the effects of TMS aims to not only explore better ways to treat illness, but also to better understand TMS. “Though the biology of why TMS works isn't completely understood, the stimulation appears to affect how this part of the brain is working,” writes Mayo Clinic Staff in their overview of TMS. One of the primary reasons for pursuing TMS as a treatment alternative is that, unlike other medications, it doesn't have signicant side-effects. “TMS is well-tolerated and associated with few side-effects and only a small percentage of patients discontinue treatment because of these,” write Johns Hopkins Medicine Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences researchers. treatment on migraines. The journals of Neuroscience Letters and Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews published work by

“We know that addictive drugs change many, many brain regions, as many as 90 or more, and these regions are organized into overlapping circuits. We have no idea how, given this enormous complexity, just shutting down or tuning up one single region can produce such profound effects.”

— Antonello Bonci Neuropsychopharmacologist Director of National Institute on Drug Abuse’s Intramural Research Program

Scientists search for the ‘Holy Grail’

It also authorizes HHS to develop grants to support people who are in recovery transition to independent living and jobs, as well as develop a pilot program to provide temporary housing for those recovering from substance abuse. of the bill provides measures to prevent synthetic opioids like fentanyl from entering the U.S. According to the Centers for Disease Control, total opioid deaths did not increase in 2017, but deaths due to fentanyl overdoses did. Data shows the drug, which is about 50 times more potent than heroin, caused nearly 30,000 fatal overdoses last year. access to medication-assisted treatment. It removes the cap on the number of patients to whom drugs like buprenorphine, a drug cravings and easing withdrawal, from 100 to 275, and expands a grant program allowing medication-assisted treatments.

strengthen the federal government’s response to the opioid crisis,” Sen. Rob Portman (R-OH), who helped put together the legislation, said in a statement after the Senate vote. “Importantly, this bill will increase access to long-term treatment and recovery while also like fentanyl from being shipped into the United States through our own Postal Service.” On the other side of the debate, Leana Wen, M.D., the former health commissioner of Baltimore (and incoming president of Planned Parenthood), said that the legislation “is simply tinkering around the edges.” Daniel Raymond, director of policy and planning for the Harm a bad thing, but I do think to some degree it’s a political document,” Raymond told the Washington Post. “When you drill down into it, it’s not that there aren’t good ideas, but it doesn’t reach the level of, this is what our nation needs right now.” and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to allow organizations to develop opioid recovery centers in a community. It also requires the Department of Health and Human Services to determine best practices and then create a grant program implementing those policies or procedures, such as the use of recovery coaches, which has

On October 24, 2018... President Trump signed a new, bipartisan bill to combat the opioid addiction epidemic. Politicians are hailing it as a major step forward, while addiction and treatment experts say it falls far short of

A package of more than 70 bills introduced targeting the opioid crisis, the Support for Patients & Communities Act:

• Reauthorizes funding from the Cures Act, which put $500 million a year toward the opioid crisis, and makes some policy changes intended to give states more • Creates a grant program for “Comprehensive Opioid Recovery Centers,” which will attempt to serve the addiction treatment and recovery needs of their communities (in part by using what’s known as an ECHO model). • Removes restrictions on medications for opioid addiction, allowing more types of health care practitioners to prescribe the drugs.

• Expands an existing program

• Advances new initiatives to educate and raise awareness about proper pain treatment among health care providers. • Attempts to improve coordination between different federal agencies to stop illicit drugs like fentanyl at the border, and gives agencies more tools to improve detection and testing at border checks. • Increases penalties for drug manufacturers and distributors related to the over-prescribing of opioids.

responders, such as police and

naloxone, a medication that reverses opioid overdoses.

• Allows federal agencies to pursue more research projects related to addiction and pain. • Makes several changes to Medicare and Medicaid to attempt to limit the over-prescription of opioid painkillers within the programs and expand access to addiction treatment, including lifting some of the current restrictions that make it harder for Medicare and Medicaid to pay for addiction treatment.

OPIATE + OPIOID ADDICITON What is the difference between Opiates and Opioids?



A Natural Pain RemedIES












What Medications Treat Opiate & Opioid Addiction?


These medications act directly upon the opioid receptors; more specically the mu receptors. Because the effects of these medications vary at the receptor level, there can be different clinical effects during treatment.

ReVia | Depade | Vivitrol

Methadone Dolophine

Buprenorphine Suboxone | Subutex

A FULL AGONIST binds to the receptor and activates it by changing its shape - inducing a full receptor response.

same day appointments available now 812-465-2652

A PARTIAL AGONIST binds to the receptor and activates it with a smaller shape change in the receptor that includes a partial receptor response.

INTERVIEW 3 Dr. Randall Oliver

your journey starts today


5401 Vogel Road, Suite 740 Evansville, IN 47715 812-465-2652

Our Outpatient Program provides necessary therapeutic resources for people who are new to Medication Assisted Treatment . We utilize an option of different medications that are used alongside our Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) counseling program .

83 C Michael Davenport Blvd. Frankfort, KY 40601



INTERVIEW 4 Margeaux Rennels

“We were surprised at the number of people who transitioned to heroin. ” - Dr. Robert Carlson, Wright State University

Racial divide

The new NIDA-funded study targeted 18- to 23-year-olds because they are arguably at the highest risk for substance abuse. The study did not look at other age groups. But when considering the factors that may move a person from prescription opioids to heroin, Dr. Carlson believes age is just a number. “I wouldn’t think the risk factors for transition to heroin would be much different regardless of age group,” Dr. Carlson says. While the risk factors may be the same across age groups, the most deadly effects of heroin use are not. Research has shown that those most at risk of a heroin-related overdose fall in the 25 to 44 age range. It’s important to keep in mind that the vast majority of prescription opioid users will not move on to heroin. And signicant research is still needed to determine the social, environmental and biological factors that contribute to a person transitioning to heroin. But Dr. Carlson says he’s encouraged by the progress being made and believes the groundwork has been laid to develop effective treatment and intervention programs. “The really exciting thing to come out of this is it really gives us a rm foundation of some variables that could be targeted to prevent transition to heroin and transition to dependence,” Dr. Carlson says. Targeted approach The study also saw a difference in race among those who eventually turned to heroin. Despite roughly half the participants being African-American or Hispanic, all of the individuals who ultimately used heroin were white. Although the study could not determine the reasons behind such a strong racial divide, Dr. Carlson suggests that social networks, generational use and other circumstances could be signicant factors. National data shows the heroin epidemic has increasingly hit white males the hardest. The Centers for Disease Control estimates that between 2002 and 2013, heroin use among non-Hispanic whites increased 114 percent. Age is just a number

New study looks to pinpoint transition from prescription opioids to heroin

Stopping heroin use before it begins may be the best remedy for the country’s growing epidemic. A new study looks to pinpoint the times and ways that young people rst use the dangerous drug in hopes of strengthening prevention efforts. For three years, researchers at Wright State University tracked nearly 400 18- to 23-year-olds in Columbus, Ohio, who used illicit prescription opioids but were not opioid-dependent. Of the 362 participants, 27 eventually transitioned to heroin, a rate of 7.5 percent. “We were surprised at the number of people who transitioned to heroin,” says Dr. Robert Carlson, the study’s lead researcher. “We had really no idea of what exactly we’d be able to predict.”

Predicting risk

Researchers found several predictors of increased risk of heroin use, starting with the ways in which the opioids were being used. Those who crushed or snorted the prescription drugs were far more likely to transition to heroin. “It increases the speed at which the drug is hitting the system and makes people much more liable to becoming dependent,” Dr. Carlson says. “If people can become aware that if they even think about starting to use via a non-oral route, they are heading off on a very dangerous path.”





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